Types or Classification of Operating system

In the previous post, we read  What is Operating System? , Its types and functions  Today we are going to read Types or Classification of Operating system in Hindi, so let's read further -

Types of Operating System (Type of Operating System):

Operating systems can be divided into the following types on the basis of usage:

  1. Simple Batch Operating System
  2. Multiprogramming Batch Operating System
  3. Time-Sharing Operating System
  4. Parallel Operating System
  5. Distributed Operating System

1. What is Simple Batch Operating System?

In a simple batch operating system, there is no interaction between the user and the computer, both require an intermediary to communicate with each other, in which the user completes his work and gives it to the operator, which is in writing.

What is Simple Batch Operating System?

After this, the operator sends those different tasks by typing them into the computer in the form of a batch. These sent different jobs are linked to each other according to the language. After this, each batch program is executed by a special type of program.

After the process of processing is completed, they are transferred from the main memory to the primary memory. These actions continue till the completion of each job and finally, the main memory is freed for other execution.

Example of Batch Operating System

Examples of Batch Operating Systems - Payroll Systems, Bank Invoice Systems, Transactions Processes, Research Segments, Billing Systems, etc.

Advantages of Batch Operating System:

  • In the Batch operating system, repeated tasks can be easily managed.
  • Its idle process time is very less.
  • Many users can share the batch system.
  • It is very difficult to estimate or know the time taken to complete any process. Processors of batch systems know how long it will take to work in the queue.

Disadvantages of Batch Operating System:

  • In this, no formula has been set for determining the priority for which job to be done first and which later.
  • There is no communication between the user and the system at all. Because of this, there are many jobs that are done wrongly by the operator.
  • It becomes very costly over time. 

2. What is a Multiprogramming batch Operating System?

In this technique, the operating system takes any one job for execution and immediately starts its execution.

When some kind of input is required to further the process of that job, during that time the process of another job is started by keeping that job in a waiting state. 

There may be a memory problem in this process. To solve this, the job which is in a wait state is transferred from main memory to secondary memory (Hard Disk).

The advantage of the multiprogramming system is that the CPU does not reach the idle stage. It has jobs available for continuous process.

Read AlsoWhat is Operating System Architecture?, OPERATING SYSTEM

3. What is Time-sharing Operating System?

Time-sharing is required when multiple users perform different tasks in the same computer. In this, multiple terminals (keyboard, mouse, etc.) are connected to a single processing unit. 

This saves the cost of installing separate processing units and multiple users can do different tasks in the same processing unit.

Since different tasks are performed by more than one user at the same time, time sharing is done by the CPU to complete them. Its advantage is that with this you can save the cost and space of installing separate processing units.

Time-sharing Operating System:

An example of time sharing is the railway reservation system, where many people try to get reservation tickets at the same time, but in this, the person whose reservation request comes first is given a berth first.

A time-sharing system works similarly to Multiprogramming. This system can be considered as an extension of a multiprogramming system.

The main difference between these two is that in a multiprogramming system, maximum emphasis is given on maximum utilization of CPU whereas in a time-sharing system, emphasis is given on reducing response time.

Example of Time-Sharing Operating System

Examples of time-sharing operating system - Multics, UNIX, Linux, TOPS-20 (DEC), Windows NT server, Windows 2000 server, TOPS-10 (DEC), etc.

Advantages of Time-sharing Operating System

  • CPU idle time can be reduced in this.
  • The best advantage of time sharing is that all the tasks are given a fixed time.
  • There is a significant improvement in response time.
  • It is very easy to use and user-friendly.
  • Its advantage is that with this you can save the cost and space of installing separate processing units. 
  • The duplication process of software can be avoided.

Disadvantages of Time-sharing Operating System

  • Uses a lot of CPU. 
  • Duplication process of software can be avoided.

4. What is Distributed Operating System?

It is also known as DOS in short. In a distributed system, computers can communicate independently with other computers to achieve a goal. They transfer information for communication, that is, they send messages to each other.

Through this message, he can get all kinds of work done from another computer, like if he has to execute a program, then the message is passed for it.

Distributed Operating System:

In this, the computer has its own memory, CPU, which it does not share with any other computer. A distributed system consists of the following two techniques by which the computer system can be organized:

  • Client Server Architecture
  • Peer-to-Peer Architecture

i) Client/Server Architecture:

Client-server architecture is a type of network architecture in which some computers act as clients and some computers act as servers. The server is a powerful computer and many client computers can be configured in one server. 

In this, the task of the computer on which the server is configured is to respond to the request of the client.

In this, many clients are connected to a server which acts as a center computer. See the picture below to understand its works:

Client/Server Architecture:

ii) Peer-to-peer architecture:

In Peer to peer architecture, computers allow the use of memory and processor to complete some tasks. In this system, sharing some parts of the memory and processor with other computers helps in completing distributed processing.

Peer-to-peer architecture:

In this, equal effort is given to hard work to achieve the goal. Due to this, the memory and CPU of all computers have to work according to their capacity, so that everyone works equally hard.

Examples of Distributed Operating Systems are- LOCUS इत्यादि ।

Advantages of Distributed Operating System:

  • The processing time of data is less.
  • These systems are easily scalable as many systems can be easily added and removed from the network.
  • The loading process of the CPU can be reduced because in this the task is divided equally according to the working capacity of cpu.
  • It works very fast and response is received very quickly.

Disadvantages of Distributed Operating System:

  • Since many clients are added to the same server in this, if the server fails, the communication breaks down.
  • These types of systems are not easily available as they are very expensive. Not only this, the underlying software is highly complex and is not yet well understood.
  • It is very difficult to use.

5. What is Parallel Operating System?

If you look at the current computer, it has evolved a lot from its initial computer, the processing speed of the CPU in the current computer has become so high that it can do large tasks in minutes.

Therefore, it is necessary that in order to end the idle process of the CPU, instead of giving it one process at a time, it should be given another process in parallel, which the CPU keeps on doing those jobs continuously. 

But in order to parallelize more than one process, it is necessary that information is shared about all the processes.

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