What is an Operating System Architecture?

 What is an Operating System Architecture?

There are two parts of the Operating System architecture, the first part is for the user interface and the second is for the kernel. A kernel is known as the main component of the operating system. 

The function of the kernel is to restrict the use of system resources by others. The part of the Operating System Structure can be understood in the following picture: 

The following tasks are performed in the operating system:

  • Does the work of memory management.
  • control of the internal communication process 
  • Manages and controls the functions of various hardware devices using drivers. Manages the process using process and thread.
  • Changing or deleting the name of a file and directory or moving, copying, etc.
  • Establishing communication between the processor and other hardware devices. 

Kernel Architecture can be divided into the following three types:

  1. Monolithic Kernels
  2. Layer architecture-based kernels
  3. Micro Kernels

1. Monolithic Kernels:

Every element of the operating system comes under this kernel, which directly communicates with other elements. Understand the working of monolithic kernels from the following diagram:

operating system architecture

One advantage of this was that the operating system designed by this kernel was very efficient, but there was no big loss of useless code apart from not being able to split errors. 

2. Layer Architecture-based Kernels:

Generally, some parts of Windows and Linux operating systems are designed in this way. The main advantage of designing the kernel in layering is that one layer does not affect the work of the other and the technique of work can be changed depending on the layer.

Read Also - What is an Operating System? it's type

At present the design of the operating system has become big and complex. That's why the layer has an important contribution to reducing this complexity. 

In this type of design, each layer communicates with each other but also hides its work from others. That's why it gets more security, in this the layers are separated from each other, so modification becomes easy in it. We can understand the working of this layering kernel in the picture below: 

Layer Architecture-based Kernels:

The design of the layered kernel is such that it hides the functions of the lower layer and provides a friendly interface through the upper layer, which makes it easier to create software that runs in it. 

3. Micro Kernels:

This kernel is specially designed for small-size devices which have very less memory capacity. Most of the operating system components are designed for this kernel. 

It is mainly used in designing device drivers, protocol stacks, and file systems. Its working can be understood in the following picture

In this, low-level space management, thread management, and inter-state communication are designed for only a few facilities, that is, a very small level of services are included in it.

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